Let’s talk ignition
As far as ignition systems go there’s not much to know. Spark plugs, wires, cap and rotor are about it aside from the ignition coil itself. However there’s a common factor at play and from a performance standpoint it’s somewhat useful to have a deeper understanding for both performance and diagnostics when it comes to misfires.
As performance levels rise so too do the necessary supporting components of the engine to reach the power goals you might have. Most fuel system upgrades are pretty straight forward and only consist of a fuel components I.E. Fuel pump, Injectors, and fuel pressure regulator. For the most part the Walbro series of fuel pumps are a popular cost effective option when it comes to replacing the factory pump. The 255lph pump is an easy pump to fit to your typical FWD Volvo model with the exception of a few AWD cars where the pump adapting takes a bit more work.
Injector sizing and MAF sensors, Part 1.
Injector sizing for performance is a somewhat misunderstood concept when it comes to tuning MAF based cars, especially Volvo. The reason for this isn’t that the math or estimations for larger injectors isn’t sound but errors that do arise generally come from a lack of understanding of the factory air flow measurement and its limitations.
It’s interesting to note that cars with even stock turbochargers are able to max out a MAF sensor as early as 14psi. When I say “Max out the MAF” what I mean is exactly that. The MAF sensor can only measure a certain maximum amount of airflow through the sensor. At some point the airflow across the sensor is higher than its maximum measurement and the 0-5v output is at its maximum 5v reading. Consider the attached graphic. Note the MAF voltage tops out at 5v while the ECU calculated airflow continues to climb. The car in this example is a C70 with a 19T turbo at 16psi.
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